ROMAN AND BYZANTINE – 30 B.C. to 1191 A.D.
Wine and the symbolism of vineyards have a special place in Christianity. In as much as vineyards and their cultivation are a part of daily life, so are wine and vineyards part of the teaching of the Christian faith. Together with consecrated bread and olive oil they form the Holy Trinity, which Orthodox Christians treat with respect and affection. Wine symbolizes the blood of Christ and the Holy Communion, while vineyards symbolize the world and the faithful. Wall paintings often depict the mystery of the Holy Communion during which wine is transformed into Christ’s blood, while churches are often decorated with vine leaves.